This technology is based on the measurement of the wavelength and intensity of the radiation emitted, absorbed or scattered by the internal quantum transition of a substance under the action of radiation, for the purpose of analysis. According to the different objects, spectral analysis technology can be divided into atomic spectrum method (measuring ions, trace elements, etc.) and spectrophotometry method; According to the different ways of obtaining, this technology can be divided into absorptiometry method and emission spectrum method.
The absorptiometry method is a method of analyzing substances based on their selective absorption of light in a solution. Colored solutions have the property of selective absorption of light, and different substances have different absorption capabilities for different wavelengths of light due to their different molecular structures. Each substance has a specific absorption spectrum. When light of a certain wavelength passes through the solution of the substance, the method of determining the content of the substance based on the degree of light absorption (absorbance) of the substance is called the absorptiometry method.
The absorptiometry method can be divided into two categories: colorimetry and spectrophotometry. Colorimetry can be further divided into visual colorimetry and photometric colorimetry. Spectrophotometry and photometric colorimetry are similar in principle, as they both measure the intensity of a solution's transmittance with a photovoltaic cell or phototube to perform analysis. When measuring a certain chemical component in a solution using colorimetry, it is usually necessary to add a color reagent to produce a colored compound. The depth of color is proportional to the content of the chemical component being measured, and the concentration of the component can be determined accordingly.
Electrochemical analysis method is a method of analyzing substances by using the changes in the potential, current or quantity of the chemical battery of a substance to be determined. There are many types of electrochemical analysis methods. The analysis method that measures the original electromotive force to determine the substance content is called the potential method or the potential analysis method; the analysis method that determines the substance content by measuring the resistance is called the conductance method; the analysis method that uses the sudden change in some physical quantity as an indicator of the end point of the titration is called the capacitance analysis method. Currently, the electrochemical analysis method mainly used in clinical practice is the ion-selective potential analysis method, which uses the relationship between the electrode potential and the active substance in the solution for analysis. From a methodological point of view, clinical immunodiagnostic reagents can be classified into different types, such as immunoturbidity method (already introduced in the scattering spectrum technology), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence, etc.
This technology combines the high specificity of enzyme-catalyzed reactions with the specificity of antigen-antibody reactions as a marker detection technology. The principle is to combine an enzyme with an antibody or antigen to form an enzyme label conjugate. The enzyme label conjugate retains both the immunological activity of the antigen or antibody and the catalytic activity of the enzyme on the substrate. After the specific reaction between the enzyme-labeled antibody and antigen is completed, the corresponding substrate acted upon by the enzyme is added, and the location, qualitative, and quantitative determination of the antigen or antibody are carried out by completing the color reaction through enzymatic catalysis.
This technology is a detection method for quantitative analysis and separation of the components on the surface and interior of single cells or other biological particles. It can analyze tens of thousands of cells at high speed, and can simultaneously measure multiple parameters from a single cell. Compared with traditional fluorescence microscopy, this method has the characteristics of fast speed and high accuracy.
This technology is a detection analysis technology that combines the high sensitivity of chemiluminescence measurement technology with the high specificity of immune reactions, and is used for the detection and analysis of various antigens, semi-antigens, antibodies, hormones, enzymes, fatty acids, vitamins, drugs, etc. Chemiluminescence immunoassay includes two parts: an immune reaction system and a chemiluminescence analysis system.
Clinical molecular biology diagnostic reagents, commonly known as gene diagnostic reagents, use technological principles including nucleic acid molecular hybridization technology, DNA sequencing technology, gene chip technology, etc.