The heart is responsible for pumping blood flow to organs and tissues, providing them with sufficient oxygen and nutrients, as well as removing metabolic waste products (such as carbon dioxide, urea, and uric acid) to maintain normal cellular metabolism and function. The major blood vessels connected to the heart transport blood to the lungs and the body, then return to the heart. Blood vessels on the surface of the heart supply it with oxygen and nutrients, and remove waste products.
Hormones and other body fluid factors need to be transported to target cells through blood circulation to achieve fluid regulation and maintain the relative consistency of the body's internal environment. Blood circulation is achieved through the "pump" function of the heart.
The "engine" of the human body, the heart, is a strong, tireless, and hardworking pump. The heart is like an engine to the body, but the difference is that once the heart stops beating and cannot be revived through rescue measures, it means the end of a person's life. With the acceleration of social aging and urbanization and the prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles among residents, heart disease, the leading cause of human health problems, is increasingly threatening our lives.
International pharmaceutical experts have proposed the concept of heart biomarkers in order to more comprehensively reflect heart disease. It is a combination of multiple test indicators that hopes to reflect various stages of heart disease through these indicators, and sensitively detect heart disease in its early stages. Cardiac marker test is crucial for the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease, and the development of cardiac marker test has directly promoted the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cardiovascular disease. In the 1950s, a major advancement in medicine was the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction by dynamically measuring changes in serum enzyme activity. Since 1954, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) has been used as the first heart biomarker in clinical practice. Over the past half-century, medical professionals have discovered many heart biomarkers, some of which have gradually been applied in clinical practice.
Includes various types of electrocardiograms, echocardiograms, Doppler blood flow testing, real-time myocardial acoustic imaging, digital subtraction angiography, and cardiac marker test. These tests are non-invasive and therefore more easily accepted by patients, but the data obtained is more indirect. However, with the continuous improvement of instrument performance and testing technology, their diagnostic value is rapidly increasing. Among them, cardiac marker test is cheap, can be continuously and dynamically monitored and is almost non-invasive. It is clearly a method that patients and doctors are more willing to accept.